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Speciesist Sexual Exploitation

The oppression of nonhuman animals bases mainly on the exploitation of their reproductive system. Animals procreate sexually (with the exception of some animals who are also capable to reproduce non-sexually).

- Male animals are forced to ejaculate through manipulation; female animals get made pregnant through artificial insemination and embryo transfer.  

- Male and female animals get checked for their "breeding soundness." The "unfit" ones get straight away culled.

Sexual exploitation by the animal industries. Compiled sources on the subject:

Manipulation of male animals:

Breeding Soundness Evaluation

Record any injury or abnormality as acceptable or unacceptable. If the bull is unacceptable, have the examiner explain why. Bulls with gross deficiencies or abnormalities detected by physical examination should be culled.

Breeding Soundness Evaluation

The penis and prepuce are examined for inflammation, preputial abscesses, adhesions, penile deviations, warts, tumours, persistent frenulums, and hair rings. During the time of electroejaculation, the bull will be examined and assessed for the ability to attain an erection, extend his penis, ejaculate, and then retract his penis to the normal non-erect position.

The scrotum and testicles are thoroughly examined. Normal testicles should move freely in the scrotum, should be close to the same size (within a 25% deviation), and should feel turgid, somewhat like a tennis ball. Common problems include soft testicles, abnormal epididymides, frostbite damage, adhesions, excessive fat, deviation in the size of testicles, and abnormal shape or size. (

Semen collection

With livestock, semen is either collected using an artificial vagina or obtained by electrical stimulation of the reproductive tract. The male is allowed to mount and attempt to mate a restrained teaser animal while the penis is manually diverted into the artificial vagina. Rams, boars, and stallions can be trained to mount a dummy. Electroejaculation involves placement of a bipolar electrode over the accessory glands by way of the rectum; this method is an alternative to the artificial vagina if the male is unable or unwilling to mount. Professional AI services generally collect semen from bulls twice a week. 

Semen collection

There are 3 methods for collecting semen.

1. Massage - As a "warm up" before collection, each seminal vesicle can be rectally massaged. This anterior to posterior motion stimulates the release of the presperm fraction that acts as a urethral flush. The ampullae secretion follows. Advantages to a massage include the ability to collect a bull that cannot mount or service an artificial vagina. Since the first step of an evaluation is the rectal, the massage is continued and is less traumatic than an electrical probe. Some bulls fail to respond, and the semen can be contaminated with urine or diluted with seminal fluid. It is difficult to thoroughly examine the penis during the rectal massage which may give an incomplete erection. The first ejaculate has a lower quality than subsequent samples.
2. Artificial Vagina - This technique produces a more physiological sample plus the benefit of being able to assess the bull's libido and mating ability. It is the preferred method for artificial insemination collections. The major disadvantages are the required equipment (teaser and dummy) and the increased danger to the collector. It can be very time consuming if the bull is uncooperative or hesitant.
3. Electroejaculator - The rectal probe provides a cheap, controllable, quick, easy, safe, and reproducible method. It does not produce a physiological sample nor does it measure libido or mating ability. The probe can be computerized with a built-in circuitry that pulses with 32 successive stimulation periods of increasing voltage and frequency. The 3 longitudinal electrodes of alternating polarity are placed ventrally against the bull's accessory sex glands. A bull will leap in the chute from the excitement of the sciatic nerve and surrounding musculature. Rectal probes that can be manually controlled are better for dairy or large bulls because of the greater range and power. If the electrodes are directed dorsally against the pelvic nerves, the bull will go down. These electrodes should be cleaned with sandpaper to improve contact and stimulation since feces acts as insulation.
The examiner must witness protrusion and erection of the penis, and ejaculation of semen in order to evaluate the bull. The bull may ejaculate into the sheath if the penis gets caught in the prepuce.
The preputial hairs should be clipped if dirty to lower contamination of the sample. Electroejaculation may cause the bull to urinate into the ejaculate and ventral deviation of the penis. (


Two experiments were conducted to determine whether caudal epidural lidocaine anesthesia reduces a stress response to electroejaculation. In the 1st experiment, changes in cortisol and progesterone concentrations in serial blood samples were used to assess the stress response to restraint (control), transrectal massage, caudal epidural injection of saline, electroejaculation after caudal epidural injection of lidocaine, and electroejaculation without epidural lidocaine. In the 2nd experiment, behavioral responses were subjectively scored in bulls that were electroejaculated with or without caudal epidural lidocaine anesthesia. Cortisol and progesterone concentrations were significantly elevated after electroejaculation, whether or not bulls received caudal epidural anesthesia. Elevations in cortisol and progesterone were lower and fewer bulls vocalized during electroejaculation when given caudal epidural anesthesia; however, the differences were not significant. (


The animal response to electroejaculation includes the following events:

1- Sacral nervous plexus and muscles of the hindquarters are stimulated.

2- Clear seminal fluid usually drips from the sheath.

3- The penis erects in the sheath and extends itself to protrude from the sheath. If the penis does not protrude, forward pressure on the sigmoid flexure just posterior to the scrotum will cause extension.

4- Rhythmic stimulations of the musculature should cause ejaculation.

5- Electrical ejaculation is generally well tolerated but it also causes relatively widespread muscle contraction. If the ram does not ejaculate within the first 4-6 stimulations, let the ram rest for about 5-10 minutes until he regains his composure.

Steps for semen collection in rams

1- The ram may be held laid on his side.

2- Students should help to restrain the ram by securing the legs.

3- Measure scrotal circumference (SC). It is highly correlated with testicular weight which in turn is directly related to sperm producing capacity.

4- Clean the sheath area to remove dirt and debris.

5- Prepare the collecting tube (small beaker).

6- Turn on the electroejaculator.

7- Insert the lubricated probe completely

6- Turn on the electroejaculator.

7- Insert the lubricated probe completely in the rectum with the electrodes oriented ventrally.

8- In a rhythmic motion, stimulate the ram by turning the power knob clockwise, hold for a second, return to zero and hold for a second.

9- Watch the ram's response. When he becomes refractory to one power setting, increase the power to another step. It is recommended to apply the stimuli every 7 seconds with increments of 1 volt. Ejaculation usually after 4-6 rounds of stimulation

10- Collect the ejaculate within the beaker.

11- Turn off the machine.

12- Remove the probe.

13- Evaluate the semen and record results.



LPAG was appalled that the ORPRC would deny that electroejaculation on an unanesthetized monkey causes a great deal of pain and distress to the monkey. Electroejaculation may be the standard for collecting semen samples from exotic animals in zoos, but the procedure is generally done under anesthesia. Semen collection is often conducted on bulls, and the National Association of Animal Breeders (NAAB) web site indicates that the standard semen collection practice is with the use of an artificial vagina (AV) which uses no electric stimulus ( Electroejaculation, according to the NAAB, "should be limited to those circumstances when the temperament of physical condition of a bull renders collection of semen by AV unsafe or impossible." The article "Collecting and Freezing of Semen" by Tullis Matson describes the use of AV for semen collection from stallions, and makes no mention of electroejaculation ( LPAG believes that ORPRC is misleading the public when it maintains that electroejaculation is a common method of semen collection in domestic animals, and is therefore acceptable in monkeys. We ask that this inaccurate information be removed from the web site.

While electroejaculation may not be equivalent to genital electrocution, the electrical stimulation still holds the potential to be painful to the individual. A member of LPAG received electrical stimulation as therapy following a joint injury, and reported that the stimulus became painful after a certain threshold. The threshold varies from individual to individual, and human patients must report when the stimulus becomes painful. Perhaps even more compelling is this statement from the Center for Male Reproductive Medicine web site (; " electroejaculation is performed with a device known as an electroejaculator…A current generated by the machine is applied to stimulate the nerves and produce contraction of the pelvic muscles resulting in an ejaculation…Electroejaculation must be performed under general anesthesia in all patients who have abdominal and perirectal sensation (emphasis added)." If electroejaculation were not painful, as ORPRC claims, general anesthesia would not be required in humans. LPAG is requesting the IACUC review this protocol, and address the issue of the extreme pain and distress these males are likely suffering. LPAG would like copies of written justifications for allowing electroejaculation to be performed on unanesthetized macaques, when the standard for humans requires general anesthesia.

Electroejaculation has been performeed with lumbar and rectal electrodes.


An electrode unit, which has a number of contact rings, is inserted into the buck's rectum. Slight electric stimulation brings on ejaculation. This technique generally results in good samples in quantity and quality. However, the sperm concentration of the sample will be lower. This method does not require extensive training, and will allow collections from bucks that may refuse or are unable to mount and serve an artificial vagina. 

Laparoscopy, Embryo Transfer, and Electroejaculation

Laparoscopy, transcervical insemination and embryo transfer must be carried out only by veterinarians, or by trained and competent operators under veterinary supervision, using sedatives and anaesthesia as appropriate.

For semen collection from rams, use of an artificial vagina is the technique of choice for welfare reasons. If this is not practicable or if semen is required for diagnosticpurposes, collection by electroejaculation may be an option. Electroejaculation must be carried out only by veterinarians or by trained and competent operators under veterinary supervision. (

Manipulation of female animals:

Artificial insemination. The cervix of appropriately large animals can be negotiated with an insemination rod and sperm deposited directly into the uterus. Livestock producers use AI to improve genetics and control sexually-transmitted diseases. Artificial insemination also is perform if sperm penetration of the cervical mucus is a deterrent to fertility or if mating is impractical.

With livestock, semen is either collected using an artificial vagina or obtained by electrical stimulation of the reproductive tract. The male is allowed to mount and attempt to mate a restrained teaser animal while the penis is manually diverted into the artificial vagina. Rams, boars, and stallions can be trained to mount a dummy. Eloctroejaculation involves placement of a bipolar electrode over the accessory glands by way of the rectum; this method is an alternative to the artificial vagina if the male is unable or unwilling to mount. Professional AI services generally collect semen from bulls twice a week.

Fertility of an ejaculate is ultimately judged by inseminating females and determining rates of pregnancy (or nonreturn to estrus). Until actual breeding data can be compiled, a predicted judgement of fertility is based on a laboratory examination of semen samples. Criteria used to judge a semen sample include cellular concentration, proportion of live to dead cells, morphology, and motility. The fertilizing capacity of human ejaculates have been enhanced using laboratory techniques. (

Artificial insemination

The use of AI offers the following advantages to both purebred and commercial cow-calf breeders:

1. It should reduce the bull cost per pregnant female; eliminates the year-round expense and hassle of keeping and handling bulls. AI may not completely eliminate the use of natural breeding. You may still need clean-up bulls, but the total number of bulls required will be reduced.

2. You can use outstanding, proven bulls at modest prices and get maximum genetic improvements in your herd. In three generations, 87.5% of the genetics of your herd trace back to the sires of those three generations.

3. By using superior AI bulls, you can rapidly improve the economically important traits of calving ease, weaning weight, average daily gain, carcass quality and maternal ability.

4. The risk of introducing harmful recessive traits, such as dwarfism, double muscling, mule foot or marble bone is significantly reduced due to thorough sire selection and progeny testing.

5. Using AI usually results in an improved level of management because more complete records are kept. This improves replacement heifer selection and production and feeding management.

6. The calving season can be shortened, resulting in a heavier and more uniform calf crop.

7. Venereal diseases cannot be introduced or transmitted when using disease-free semen.


Embryo Transfer

In 1890 rabbit embryos were transferred from donor rabbits to surrogate/recipient rabbits. The experiment demonstrated that the surrogate's genetics would not influence the transferred embryo's genetic make-up end development. By 1930, the first bovine (cow) embryo was successfully collected.

The initial method of collection was a surgical retrieval procedure that removed the oviducts of a slaughtered cow. This procedure defeated the purpose of extracting a continuous supply of embryos from a superior cow. Another method was developed that surgically removed the embryos of a live cow 72 hours post-ovulation, but this method defeated the purpose of superovulation. Another surgical method was developed that allowed for the recovery of a high percentage from a live cow.

By 1951 successful bovine embryo transfer was accomplished, but it wasn't until 1964 that a nonsurgical method of embryo collection succeeded. Today we can flush numbers of embryos from a superovulated cow with little stress to the animal and have a promising success rate. (

Embryo Transfer

Besides the fact of trauma on the recipient the surgical transfer places the embryo further up the uterine horn than non - surgical. There may be a small increase in the conception rate maybe 5%, however if the recipients are in good shape it will not be of much benefit. Surgical transfer requires a small cut in the cows flank on the side of the ovulation. The uterus is pulled out and a small hole is made to the uterus. A small catheter is placed in through the hole and the embryo released. Non surgical is the same as A.I. A special gun is place up through the cow's vagina and pushed through the cervix. The embryo is placed in the side of the ovulation and released from the gun. (

Breeding soundness evaluation of females

We join young (14 months) and cull rigorously. All cows and heifers are pregnancy tested and those who fail to carry are culled. We do not cull for age. We believe the older cow that is still meeting all your requirements will breed longevity into the herd.

Our cows are run under commercial conditions, and no exceptions are made for poor performances. …(farms name)… does not carry on the non-productive females, as this will only cause infertility in the herd. 

Basically there is a checklist we follow, and we advise our clients to follow to achieve a cow herd that will stay commercially viable. 

  • Join cows to the best possible bulls available.
  • Join for only 3 cycles.
  • Pregnancy Test all cows and heifers and cull if empty
  • Cull the cow if she fails to rear a calf or needs assistance at birth
  • Cull the mothers of the worst calves. These cost you the same amount as a good calf to run and return you much less.


Breeding soundness evaluation of females

As the bulls are being removed from the replacement heifers, this would be an ideal time to call and make arrangements with your local veterinarian to have those heifers evaluated for pregnancy in about 60 days.  In two months, experienced palpaters should have no difficulty identifying which heifers are pregnant and which heifers are not pregnant (open).  Those heifers that are determined to be "open" after this breeding season, should be strong candidates for culling. Culling these heifers immediately after pregnancy checking serves three very useful purposes.

1) Identifying and culling open heifers early will remove sub-fertile females from the herd.   Lifetime cow studies from Montana indicated that properly developed heifers that were exposed to fertile bulls, but DID NOT become pregnant were often sub-fertile compared to the heifers that did conceive.  In fact, when the heifers that failed to breed in the first breeding season were followed throughout their lifetimes, they averaged a 55% yearly calf crop.  Despite the fact that reproduction is not a highly heritable trait, it also makes sense to remove this genetic material from the herd so as to not proliferate females that are difficult to get bred. 

2) Culling open heifers early will reduce winter costs.  If the rancher waits until next spring to find out which heifers do not calve, the winter feed expense will still be lost and there will be no calf to help eventually help pay the bills.  This is money that can better be spent in properly feeding cows that are pregnant and will be producing a salable product the following fall. 

3) Identifying the open heifers shortly after (60 days) the breeding season is over will allow for marketing the heifers while still young enough to go to a feedlot and be fed for the choice beef market. The grading change of two years ago has a great impact on the merchandising of culled replacement heifers.   "B" maturity carcasses (those estimated to be 30 months of age or older) are no longer allowed to be graded choice.  Therefore, it is imperative to send heifers to the feedlot while they are young enough to be fed for 4 to 5 months and not be near the "B" maturity age group. Auction barn order buyers will be especially leery of heifers that may be near 18 to 20 months of age, because of the risk of "B" maturity beef that receives a considerable discount when harvested at the packing plant. 

Certainly the percentage of open heifers will vary from ranch to ranch.  Do not be concerned, if after a good heifer development program and adequate breeding season, that you find that 10% of the heifers still are not bred.  These are the very heifers that you want to identify early and remove from the herd.  It just makes good economic business sense to identify and cull non-pregnant replacement heifers as soon as possible.


You think that is going to far. We agree with you.

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